Pantothenic Acid - Coenzyme A (CoA) and 4'phosphopanteine
Adequate Intake ?:
Acyl transfer reactions; acetylation/acylation of proteins, sugars, and other substrates; gene expression. Burning foot syndrome = burning of the feet, neuritis. Major Food Sources: Widespread in foods. AI: 5 mg
Deficiencies are so rare, that most studies do not even study intakes. Toxicity is also extremely rare.
So common that deficiencies are rare.
History & Discovery:
Roger J. Williams, an American biochemist discovered pantothenate in 1933 as essential compound for growth of yeast. He called the compound pantothenate, derived from the Greek word pantothen, which translates as "from everywhere", as he found it in literally every food he tested.
Absorption and Storage:
Jejunum is the Primary Site of Absorption
Two Main Forms
CoA and 4'-phosphopantetheine
About 50% is absorbed
Sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT)
Pantothenic Acid is used to make CoA.
CoA, alongside FAD, NAD, and TDP, play important roles in pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and BCKAD.
CoA plays a role in fat synthesis and oxidation through malonyl-CoA and fatty-acyl CoA.
CoA is important for neurotransmitter and heme synthesis.
Deficiency Diseases, Detection, Cures:
Nausea and vomiting and/or diarrhea
Nervous system - general effects