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Biased Over- Or Under-Reporting is Characteristic of Individuals Whether Over Time or by Different Assessment Methods

Black, ALISON E.; Cole, TIMOTHY J.

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January 1, 2001



Seven studies with repeated measurements of energy intake and/or nitrogen intake were examined to determine whether misreporting is characteristic of some persons or occurs randomly. Four of the studies were validated by doubly labeled water measurements of energy expenditure. Reporting validity was expressed as the ratio of energy intake to energy expenditure. Ratios were consistently below the expected value of 1.0 for some subjects and consistently above 1.0 for others, indicating characteristic reporting validity within subjects. Two year-long studies provided 4 to 12 measurements and a total number of days sufficient to measure individual habitual intake. Subjects mean energy intake to basal metabolic rate (BMR) ratios were <1.35 in 45% and 47% and

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