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Tissue depletion of amoxicillin and its major metabolites in pigs: influence of the administration route and the simultaneous dosage of clavulanic acid

Reyns, Tim; De Boever, Sandra; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

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PMID: 18163566


A residue depletion study of amoxicillin (AMO) and its major metabolites, amoxicilloic acid (AMA) and amoxicillin diketopiperazine-2',5'-dione, was performed after a single oral (p.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration of amoxicillin (20 mg kg (-1)) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 and 5 mg kg (-1)) to pigs. Animals were slaughtered 12, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 h after dosing. Tissue samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Kidney samples contained high concentrations of amoxicilloic acid metabolite, which depleted much slower from tissues than amoxicillin, both after p.o. (t1/2AMO = 4.5 h vs t1/2AMA = 8 h) and i.v. (t1/2AMO = 4 h vs t1/2AMA = 8 h) administration. Moreover, after oral administration, significantly higher amoxicilloic acid concentrations were measured in liver and kidney than after i.v. administration. The coadministration of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid provoked no significant differences in amoxicilloic acid tissue concentrations as compared to an amoxicillin dosing. The prolonged presence of residues of amoxicilloic acid in edible tissues can play an important role in food safety, because the compound could give rise to a possible health risk, although it is not included in the maximum residue limit legislation.

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