Probable or definite atherosclerosis was noted in 47 (34%) of 137 mummies and in all four geographical populations
Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations
The study of diseases suffered by the dead and discovered through looking at their remains, mostly bones. Nutritional deficiencies, chronic disease, and pathogens are visible on bones.
The Artophagoi or eaters of bread suffered many chronic diseases.
Atherosclerosis is thought to be a disease of modern human beings and related to contemporary lifestyles. However, its prevalence before the modern era is unknown. We aimed to evaluate preindustrial populations for atherosclerosis.
We obtained whole body CT scans of 137 mummies from four different geographical regions or populations spanning more than 4000 years. Individuals from ancient Egypt, ancient Peru, the Ancestral Puebloans of southwest America, and the Unangan of the Aleutian Islands were imaged. Atherosclerosis was regarded as definite if a calcified plaque was seen in the wall of an artery and probable if calcifications were seen along the expected course of an artery.
Probable or definite atherosclerosis was noted in 47 (34%) of 137 mummies and in all four geographical populations: 29 (38%) of 76 ancient Egyptians, 13 (25%) of 51 ancient Peruvians, two (40%) of five Ancestral Puebloans, and three (60%) of five Unangan hunter gatherers (p=NS). Atherosclerosis was present in the aorta in 28 (20%) mummies, iliac or femoral arteries in 25 (18%), popliteal or tibial arteries in 25 (18%), carotid arteries in 17 (12%), and coronary arteries in six (4%). Of the five vascular beds examined, atherosclerosis was present in one to two beds in 34 (25%) mummies, in three to four beds in 11 (8%), and in all five vascular beds in two (1%). Age at time of death was positively correlated with atherosclerosis (mean age at death was 43 [SD 10] years for mummies with atherosclerosis vs 32  years for those without; p<0·0001) and with the number of arterial beds involved (mean age was 32 [SD 15] years for mummies with no atherosclerosis, 42  years for those with atherosclerosis in one or two beds, and 44  years for those with atherosclerosis in three to five beds; p < 0.0001).
Atherosclerosis was common in four preindustrial populations including preagricultural hunter- gatherers. Although commonly assumed to be a modern disease, the presence of atherosclerosis in premodern human beings raises the possibility of a more basic predisposition to the disease.
37 mummies from populations of four disparate geo- graphic regions were studied by whole body CT scanning: 76 ancient Egyptians (predynastic era, ca 3100 BCE, to the end of the Roman era, 364 CE, 13 excavation sites), 51 early intermediate to late horizon peoples in present day Peru (ca 200–1500 CE, five excavation sites), five Ancestral Puebloan of the Archaic and Basketmaker II cultures living in southwest America (ca 1500 BCE to 1500 CE, five excavation sites), and five Unangan people living in the Aleutian Islands of modern day Alaska (ca 1756–1930 CE,
one excavation site). These geographical areas were selected because of access to mummies with appropriate age and varied cultural attributes. Mummies were selected for imaging on the basis of their good state of preservation and the likelihood of being adults. Mummies were not selected for study in a random fashion.
Cairo, Cairo Governorate, Egypt