History List

"In such manner has the work of the semi-annual hunts been conducted for over half a century, and in the same way will it continue, growing less in importance yearly, until the last buffalo shall have ceased to exist. Their importance the years gone by can hardly be overestimated. They have furnished the main support of a population numbering ten thousand souls."

The Great Fur Land - The Great Fall Hunt

August 2, 1867

"Pemmican forms the principal product of the summer buffalo-hunt, when, to preserve from decay the vast quantities of meat taken, some artificial process is necessary. Each bag weighs one hundred pounds, the quantity of fat being nearly half the total weight, the whole composition forming the most solid description of food that man can make. It is the traveling provision used throughout the Fur Land."

The Great Fur Land - The Great Fall Hunt

August 1, 1867

The Great Fall Hunt of the buffalo is depicted in which thousands of hunters charge into a massive herd and shoot them point blank. "The hunter pauses not a moment, but loads and fires with the utmost rapidity, pouring in his bullets at the closest range, often almost touching the animal he aims at."

The Great Fur Land - The Great Fall Hunt

July 27, 1866

"Two active hunters, taking in their hands the long lines of raw-hide, called "shagnappe," isolate a buffalo cow from the herd. Then, seizing either end of the line, they proceed to revolve about their victim in opposite directions, so entwining her legs in the folds of the cord as to throw her to the ground by the very struggles she makes to escape."

The Great Fur Trade - The Great Fall Hunt

July 10, 1866

The diets of the people in the Forts in the Rocky Mountains and the Arctic are shown to be mostly fish and red meat, but imported goods such as flour, sugar, vegetables, and fruits are considered rare luxuries. "In many of the extreme Arctic stations the supply of provisions is limited the year round to reindeer-meat, and fish, and not infrequently to the latter alone." However, "the climate favors the consumption of solid food, and, after short residence, the appetite becomes seasoned to the quality of the fare obtainable."

The Great Fur Land - Life in a Company's Fort

January 3, 1805

The winter hunt of the buffalo in the Fur Land is described - a crucial slog through the snow to surprise and gun down the buffalo providing caches of fatty meat for the trappers and hunters of the lonely American Plains.

The Great Fur Land

February 1, 1820

Dr Densmore explains the already common occurrence of vegetarians in 1890's America and mentions how if health is the doctor's primary duty, he must encourage the eating of meat. He mentions that those who attempt to live on bread and fruit without animal products end in disaster. "The flesh of animals...may be said to be a pre-digested food, and one that requires the minimum expenditure of vital force for the production of the maximum amount of nutrition."

How Nature Cures

January 2, 1892

Dr Emmet Densmore describes the rationale of the meat diet basing it on Dr Salisbury and Emma Stuart's recent work. "A good quality of beef or mutton, roasted or broiled, to the average stomach will be found quite easy of digestion. All persons who are at all corpulent, having more adipose tissue or fat than is natural, will find this diet of special value."

How Nature Cures

January 2, 1892

Gray Cloud was more than 100 years old and had never been sick. University scientists lived with him for several months and learned he mostly ate meat.

The Steak Lover's Diet

January 2, 1998

Dr Densmore promotes an "exclusive flesh diet" to cure obesity and comments how family doctors give poor advice.

How nature cures: comprising a new system of hygiene; also the natural food of man; a statement of the principal arguments against the use of bread, cereals, pulses, potatoes, and all other starch foods.

January 2, 1892

We learn the value of fat flesh again when Native Americans court a beautiful white woman, the first they had ever seen, in the Columbia River area during the fur trade 200 years ago by offering "she would always have an abundance of fat salmon, anchovies, and elk"

The Savage Country

January 5, 1810

The importance of sturgeon on the Columbia Was comparable to that of buffalo on the prairies, or whitefish in the forest belt. It was the staple food of the traders:
"Our party, when all together, numbers 60 men, who consume 13 sturgeons per day, weighing from 25 to 250 pounds each."

The Savage Country

January 2, 1802

The full importance of pemmican is understood as a vital survival food that could last "through a winter's scarcity of game and fish. It was his staff of life in a way that bread never was in more civilized parts of the world." Two pounds of pemmican was worth eight pounds of buffalo meat.

The Savage Country

January 5, 1802

Fur traders of the Nor West company didn't have access to many plant foods, but would use berries, saved flour, and maple sugar to spice up his diet of meat and fish.

The Savage Country

January 4, 1802

"As in the case of fish, enormous quantities of meat were required to sustain a man who ate only flesh. The daily allowance of buffalo meat at Fort George was eight pounds a man. The Canadian voyageur's appetite for fat meat is insatiable." Meat, fat, and pemmican were hunted and stored for long winters at fur trading camps, but some of them were supplemented with summer harvests or traded wild rice. Some even got fat by eating maple syrup.

The Savage Country

January 3, 1803

"The posts in the forest belt subsisted largely on fish. Often, indeed, the traders in the northern departments had no other food at all. Yet, eating nothing but fish the year around, without vegetables or even salt, they were healthier, Mackenzie avers, than the venison eaters of the west." The best fish was the whitefish.

The Savage Country - Rum, Women and Rations

January 2, 1802

The fur traders of the Nor West Company often faced starvation and hunger and would have to boil animal skins for nourishment. However, when even this was unavailable, they could eat herbs or a rock lichen called tripe de roche. When eaten in excess, it weakened the body and led to violent vomiting and acute spasms of the bowels.

The Savage Country - Rum, Women, and Rations

January 2, 1801

John Hughes Bennett predicts that weight loss will help with cancer, and also advises that starch and sugar should be avoided.

On Cancerous and Cancroid Growths

January 2, 1849

I have been eating the natural human dietary regime for over 47 years now. I do not eat anything whatsoever from vegetable sources. The only things veggie I use are spices. My diet is usually 60% fat and 40% protein by calories. I used to eat 80/20 when younger and about twice as much quantity of meat also, but that seems too much energy at my age, which is 71- even though I am very active

Owsley Stanley The Bear Forum Posts

January 5, 1958

Owsley Stanly - "The Bear" discovers the Carnivore Diet in 1958.

Diet and Exercise

January 2, 1958

"Long ago, when I was young, said Albert Iyahuk, "people were never sick." Now cancer and heart disease were common; one of the causes may be a partial change to Western food. Recent studies by scientists have shown "that the incidence of cancer [among Inuit] has increased significantly following westernization."

Arctic Memories - Return to Diomede

April 15, 1990

Ten walruses were dead. The men pulled the umiak onto the floe, patched the hole, and with amazing speed and precision cut up the 2-ton carcasses. Blood flowed everywhere; piles of steaming guts lay on the ice; men with axes cut heavy-boned skulls to remove the precious ivory tusks. Ivory and a sea of blood; it seemed the essence of the hunt. We loaded the boat to the gunwales with meat, fat, and ivory, and headed for Diomede.

Arctic Memories - Island Between Two Worlds

June 2, 1975

These Mackenzie Delta Inuit took all that a bounteous nature offered, but the beluga large, easily killed, and abundant - was their favorite prey. "Eskimo whale camps will soon be no more," and Nuligak wrote in the 1950s that "the Inuit eat white man's food nowadays."

Arctic Memories

June 3, 1888

"What is the most important thing in life?" He reflected for a while, then smiled and said: "Seals, for without them we could not live." Seal meat and fat, raw or cooked, was the main food of most Inuit and their sled dogs. The high-calorie blubber gave strength, warmth, and endurance to the people; it heated them from within.

Arctic Memories

March 2, 1578

We lacked fat. The spring caribou were thin after their long migration and our main food, mipku, dried caribou meat, was leathery and lean. We ate pounds of it each day, yet were forever hungry. Living on an exclusive protein, fatless diet took its toll. We tired easily, and after a month developed the first signs of protein poisoning: diarrhea and swollen feet. As soon as we could supplement our lean-meat diet with fat fish, we felt fine again.

Arctic Memories

May 15, 1969

Bruemmer explains the importance of the caribou to the Inuit and reminisces about a hunting trip he took with them. "Caribou meat was eaten fresh, or cut into strips and air-dried for future use. Fat fall caribou, often killed far from camp, were cut up and cached, food for the coming winter."

Arctic Memories - The All-Purpose Caribou

April 15, 1967

Elizabeth Arnajarnek feeds a pre-chewed morsel of caribou meat to her baby at a camp on the Barren Grounds in 1966. The Inuit gather thousands of duck eggs and eat them raw or hard-boiled. They store them for the winter.

Arctic Memories

August 1, 1966

Bruemmer discusses other important sources of animal foods for the Inuit, including clams, some even pulled from the stomachs of walruses, fish caught through holes or in nets made of whale baleen, crabs, and even a raw seal feast.

Arctic Memories - Fishing, Clamming, and Crabbing

June 2, 1975

"A calorie, is a calorie, is a calorie," testified Ms. Slavin, "whether from HFCS or an egg..." - She received a $25k grant from Coca-Cola in 2014

Snickers maker criticizes industry-funded paper on sugar

December 21, 2016

"The general conclusion is that cancer patients, particularly those with a high level of blood sugar, should be put on a low carbohydrate diet which should contain little or no sugar."

Find Sugar is Fuel for Cancer - Develops Fastest Where Blood Has High Sugar Content - ADVISE DIET LOW IN CARBOHYDRATES

September 3, 1931

Navigator John Davies is quoted as saying about the Inuit "The people are of good stature, well proportioned. They did eat all their meat raw."

The Private Journal of Captain G.F. Lyon, of H.M.S. Hecla

June 1, 1586

"Sugar was offered to many of the grown people, who disliked it very much, and, to our surprise, the young children were equally averse to it. The fatigued and hungry Eskimaux returned to their boats to take their supper, which consisted of lumps of raw flesh and blubber of seals, birds, entrails, &c.; licking their fingers with great zest"

The Private Journal of Captain G.F. Lyon, of H.M.S. Hecla

July 22, 1824

According to Caption Lyon, the Sadlermiut Inuit board the HMS Hecla and devour some beef, but refuse biscuits. "Some slices were cut off and thrown down to them , and these they instantly devoured with great satisfaction ; but they refused to eat the biscuit which was offered at the same time."

The Private Journal of Captain G.F. Lyon, of H.M.S. Hecla

July 21, 1824

The Sadlermiut were "discovered" in the summer of 1824 by the explorer Captain G.F. Lyon of the Royal Navy. 150 years later, a visit to this island found "Ashore were ancient stone houses, man-high cairns, box-like graves built of large flat stones, and everywhere masses of bleached bones of caribou, walrus, bowhead whale, and seal." The Sadlermiut were killed off by infectious diseases by 1902.

Arctic Memories

July 8, 1824

Settle says about the Inuit "Those beastes, flesh, fishes, and fowles, which they kil, they are meate, drinke, apparel, houses....[they] are contented by their hun∣ting, fishing, and fowling, with rawe flesh and warme bloud, to satisfie their gréedie panches, whiche is their onely glorie."

A true reporte of the laste voyage into the west and northwest regions, &c. 1577. worthily atchieued by Capteine Frobisher of the sayde voyage the first finder and generall With a description of the people there inhabiting, and other circumstances notable. Written by Dionyse Settle, one of the companie in the sayde voyage, and seruant to the Right Honourable the Earle of Cumberland.

March 2, 1577

Superb sea-mammal hunters, Thule-culture Inuit pursued and killed everything, from the small ringed seal to the giant bowhead whale, and, according to archaeologist Robert McGhee of the Canadian Museum of Civilization, they had evolved "a technology more complex than that of any other preindustrial society, which allowed not only an economically efficient but also comfortable way of life throughout arctic North America."

Arctic Memories

June 1, 800

Between 1850 and 1885, the Inuit population of coastal arctic Alaska declined by 50 percent. In two generations, the Mackenzie Delta Inuit were reduced from about 1,000, to fewer than 100. Labrador's Inuit numbered about 3,000 in 1750. In 1946, 750 were left.

Arctic Memories

January 3, 1850

"The whale meant food and life and glory, the primal thrill of being, and at that moment nothing else mattered.... We ate the steaming seal meat; drank the fat, scalding broth; and glowed with marvelous warmth."

Arctic Memories - Beginnings

January 2, 1960

When I first went to stay with Inuit, for weeks and often for months, I had misgivings about living on meat alone. It was not what my culture considered a "balanced diet." Yet common sense told me that since the Inuit were healthy I, too, would be healthy if I ate the meat in their fashion, some cooked, some raw. This turned out to be true, and hunger quickly took care of my ingrained cultural aversion to eating raw meat.

Arctic Memories - The Northernmost People - Arctic Meat

June 1, 1975

An article in the New York Times describes the new methods to turn corn fields into sugar calories - which would eventually become High Fructose Corn Syrup.

Sugar from corn fields now used in many foods

March 18, 1928

At the recent meeting of the American Medical association, Dr. Haven Emerson said the average American was eating far too much sugar and other sweet foods, and also far too much bread and cereals and other starchy foods

Too Much Sugar

November 2, 1924

Increased consumption of sugar is given as a probable explanation of the increased death rate from diabetes during the last thirty years, in a bulletin issued by the New York City Health Department yesterday.

Diabetes Deaths Rise as Sugar Sales Grow: City Health Department Reports Fatalities Up 50% for Men and 150% for Women in 30 Years.

September 2, 1928

Dr Bundesen warns of the dangers of sugar and starch for decreasing your lifespan and causing diabetes, kidney disease, and heart trouble, however, the Sugar Institute's payments causes him to change his mind and recommend sugar.

Your Health - Herman N. Bundesen MD

November 1, 1927

"Sugar is a great source of heat and energy; it is quickly utilized. That is generally known and conceded. Some people think that it is fattening, but candy is like everything else; it isn't the use of a thing that harms, it is the abuse."

Candy Needed in Daily Diet Says Chicago Health Director

November 18, 1928

It almost feels like the #HAES movement was launched in 1930 by The Sugar Institute when you read the following disturbing passages. "Children are led to believe certain essential foods, necessary to build up strong, healthy bodies, are harmful because rats, fed on pre-arranged diets containing the food in question[sugar], fail to thrive." "Treat candy and other forms of sweets as food" "Medical professionals sanction a reasonable place of carbohydrate in the normal diet"

Good News...! Public interest aroused by the Sugar Institute's Advertising campaign is reflected in the news and editorial columns of the nation's newspapers and magazines.

June 13, 1930

The Sugar Institute's pamphlet describes the ten billion dollar market for sugar in 1930, as well as their usual slogans and where they run their advertisements.

Getting Everybody to help put across the idea that "most foods are more delicious with sugar"....

June 12, 1930

The Sugar Institute boasts in a pamphlet how their marketing to children grew the market while citing "doctors and dietitians approve this use of sugar"

The Millions who read the newspapers learn the truth abouth sugar from these advertisements.

June 11, 1930

"Quacks and pseudo-scientists charged sugar as the cause of many serious ills.... And so today, instead of having merely subdued a hostile force, The Sugar Institute has enlightened the public and converted many opponents to the proper use of sugar."

Removing Prejudice by Telling the Truth

June 10, 1930

"To avoid monotony in the diet, many foods can be improved by a little sugar. This is especially true of vegetables which often are tasteless." - Advertisement by The Sugar Institute

"Rounded Slimness" Decree of Fashion - Changes in Style Demand Return to Normal Diet

February 5, 1930

Margaret Albrink, Yale: Elevated Triglycerides (TG) - not cholesterol - were associated with increased risk of heart disease. Low-fat, high-carb diets raised TG. Albrink: Ancel Keys' supporters attacked me, "They were so angry!"


March 1, 1961