Notable Carnivores

Durham, North Carolina

Adele Hite

"I feel like Amber [O'Hearn] has the substance & nuance thing sewn up for carnivore diets. She's my go-to expert on the topic. From a dietitian perspective (that's what I am after all), carnivore is probably the healthiest "elimination" diet that you be on if you have complex food/environmental sensitivities. And then, some people seem to really enjoy the simplicity and deliciousness of it. I can dig that." - Adele Hite 2020

I came to rhetoric and communication from a Ph.D. program in nutritional epidemiology and a background in nutrition, dietetics, and public health. I was driven largely by frustration and questions I couldn’t answer (or even figure out how to ask). I’ve been inspired and challenged by the theoretical frameworks offered by rhetoric and communication, and I have found my work going in directions I could not have envisioned previously.

I've discovered:  science and technology studies; feminist new materialism; feminist science studies; rhetorics of science, technology, health, and medicine; critical and cultural studies; media studies; and more. As much as anything else, I've realized the value a social science/humanities perspective brings to questions of science, particularly biomedical science as it is applied in what we used to think of as the healing "arts." I suspect I will spend the rest of my life working to bridge these disciplinary gaps--and to understand how and why they were constructed in the first place.

I think this is a particularly trenchant issue when it comes to the divide between nutrition science, on one side, and the historical reality of everyday food practices, on the other. As Craig Hassel (2014) put it, "every society has had to develop its own understandings of food and health relationships." What is lost when these culturally and geographically situated ways of knowing about food and health are replaced with (or overshadowed by) modern, biomedically driven, notions of a “healthy diet"?

I bring forward with me in my work the voices of the women and men I met in clinics, hospitals, public

health settings, Washington D.C. conference rooms, and in conversations over grocery carts and neighborhood potlucks. My thinking continues to be animated by their questions and concerns, many of which boil down to this:  Why is nutrition [science, policy, discourse] the way it is?



NYC, Dead

Alfred W. Pennington

"You can’t mean an unlimited amount of meat, surely,” I protested. “If I ate all the steak I wanted, I’d top the thousand-calories-a-day mark before I knew it.”

“There’s no calorie counting on this reducing diet,” the doctor answered. “And there’s no limit, absolutely none, to the amount of meat you can eat. The first course of each meal is half a pound or more of fresh meat with the fat. The main stipulation is that you don’t skip the fat. One part of fat by weight to three parts of lean, always and invariably. A few Eskimos amoung your ancestors might come in handy.”

The first course of each meal is: One-half pound or more of fresh meat with the fat. You can eat as much as you want. The proper proportion is three parts lean to one part fat. Most of the meat you buy is not fat enough, so it is best to get extra beef-kidney fat and fry it to make up the proper proportion. Good meats are roast beef, steak, roast lamb, lamb chops, stew meat, fresh pork roast and pork chops. Hamburger with added fat is all right if the meat is freshly ground just before it is cooked. Avoid smoked or canned meats, sausages and salted butter. Fresh fish (not smoked or canned) may be substituted upon occasion.



Boulder, Colorado

Amber L O'Hearn

The Facultative Carnivore

How choosing a diet of exclusively meat–not plants!–can restore your health.

Some low carb dieters are turning to an all-meat, “zero-carb” diet, claiming it can take your health to the next level. This book explains why that’s not actually crazy, whether and how to try it out, and what the science really says about meat and plants.



Durham, North Carolina

Amy Berger

Caveats and Concerns About the Carnivore Diet

My advice regarding the carnivore diet is the same as my advice for any other change in diet: listen to your body. Pay attention to how you feel physically, mentally, emotionally, and cognitively. There will likely be an adjustment period, particularly if you’re switching to a carnivorous diet from a high-carb standard Western diet rather than from already being low carb or keto. After the initial adjustment though, if there’s been a noticeable decline in your energy levels, mood, or anything else you take to be part of your overall health and wellbeing, consider ending your carnivore experiment and adding plant foods back into your diet.

Long term data on modern-day people following exclusively carnivorous diets are scarce. But we could have said the same about ketogenic diets 30 years ago.



Andy Phung

I suffered from similar metabolic conditions that many people may have today.  I ate everything in moderation and exercised regularly. I struggled to keep my weight down.  My weight goes up and down over the years – yo-yoing. It was extremely frustrating. I developed bilateral plantar fasciitis, a painful foot condition, as the result of repetitive injury from running.  I needed foot surgery "fasciotomy" for excessive foot pain in 2014.  Despite my best effort, I was diagnosed with pre-diabetes in January 2016. At that time, I weighed 170 lbs with a BMI at 26.6 “TOFI or slim-fat”.

Because of ongoing foot problem even after surgery, increase running to lose the excess weight is out of the question. I substantially reduced the portion size of my food, and I even bought a scale to weigh the amount of food before eating – trying desperately to cut down the amount of food calories to lose the weight and treat my pre-diabetes. I started a nightly routine with using an elliptical machine to reduce the impact on my poor feet. It was one hour nightly, five times per week, and I kept the routine going for one year. How much more weight did I lose? What about my HbA1C lowering?

My name is Dr. Andy Phung, I am a board-certified family physician.  I lost 25lbs, losing 3 inches off my waistline and reversed my pre-diabetes by adopting and living low-carb ketogenic lifestyle along with intermittent fasting.   I want to help you do the same WITHOUT medications, procedures or surgery through effective intervention strategies.



LA, California

Angela Stanton

Watching Dr. Ted Naiman's talk at the Beyond Keto Summit
He summarizes something extremely well (I paraphrase): gorillas must eat 60 pounds of plants a day so they are chewing 80% of their awake time just finding enough food. I feed my dog twice a day and he eats his food in 60 seconds. So it is chewing all day versus eating for 2 minutes. It is much more efficient to eat animal proteins than plant proteins.

I think he captured the essence of plant-based versus animal-based diet: animals concentrate plant nutrients so eating a small piece of an animal is like eating a huge amount of plants.

He also recommends to start your day with your first meal, whenever your first meal is, with protein and no carbs. Always eat protein first to make sure you ate all the essential nutrients you need and if you are still hungry, eat then veggies. But make sure you always get all the protein your body needs--protein comes with fat so that's included in his analysis though he eats less fat than most people think a keto-way of eating should be.

Mind you, this is also my findings: members in my migraine group who eat carnivore with high protein ratio, they are all in ketosis even though they eat less fat than the usual carnivore. According to Naiman, he had some studies in which people could comfortably eat 80% of their Calories from protein and 20% fat--this is equivalent to 360 gr protein and 40 gr fat (1800 Calories), so a LOT of protein, 2.5-3 gr per lbs of person weight. So way more than normally recommended.

For those familiar with my CD protocol, this is much higher in protein than my protocol, which many consider quite high: by weight, this is 90% protein and 10% fat. My protocol is 60-70% protein and 30-40% fat on the CD/ZC diet.

In his experience there is no chance a person can overeat protein--unless some rare genetic disorder--so he presses on recommending lots of protein, including chicken breast and similar. He recommends eating beef for its nutrients, including heme iron.




Anthony Chaffee

Food for thought:

In 1980 the USDA proclaimed that saturated fat and cholesterol cause heart disease and a host of other diseases, now shown to be based on fraudulent data used to cover up the real culprit, sugar. Or more specifically, fructose. Since then, we've reduced our fat and meat intake by 30%, and yet all diseases claimed to be associated with too much fat intake increased dramatically. Cardiovascular disease increased. Autoimmune diseases increased. Obesity tripled. Cancer rates tripled. Type 2 diabetes increased exponentially and now accounts for around two-thirds of the Medicare and Medicaid budget every year, with only 9% of the population diabetic, and 40% pre-diabetic. Think about that for a second.

What else increased at that exact same time? One was dementia, which recent studies show can be protected against by having high LDL cholesterol, the so-called bad cholesterol, and a diet high in saturated fats. This is because, in my opinion, we dramatically reduced or even removed our only source of very long chain fatty acids among other nutrients that are used to build and repair the brain and it's structures, especially in the elderly population who almost always have some sort of heart condition for which they are put on a low fat, "heart healthy" diet.

There's something else that people don't realize; Autism also increased dramatically at this same time. Now there are studies that suggest certain diets such as vegetarianism may exclude certain nutrients that are necessary for proper development, and could lead to Autism. We also see that certain preconception diets protect against Autism. Of the 14 foods found to be protective, 12 are meat or animal based. Also of interest, children with autism have been reducing their symptoms by removing grains and other carbohydrates, as well as sugar. It is my suggestion and opinion that this autism upswing is a direct cause of removing healthy meat and animal fat from our diet and replacing it with sugars and plant based carbohydrates.

It seems funny to me that people will look at the research and evidence showing that fat was used as a scapegoat for sugar back in the 80s and agree that fat was never the problem, and yet they will still avoid fat in their diet and in the diets of their children. At the same time, they will also give their kids candy and sugar-filled treats, even though fructose is metabolized in the exact same way as ethanol, so it's literally like giving your kid a couple shots of whiskey per can of soda. People need to look past everything they've been told growing up to see the evidence at hand, especially when that evidence could save their kids from getting autism and a whole host of other chronic diseases. Just saying.



Anthony G Jay

DR. ANTHONY G. JAY, PH.D., is a scientist researching stem cells at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Dr. Jay is also the CEO of AJ Consulting Company, which specializes in scientific consulting, speaking, and personalized DNA analysis. Dr. Jay earned his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Boston University School of Medicine and his B.A. with a double major in Biology and Theology from Ave Maria University, Florida.




Ash Simmonds

Long time carnivore and author, this website is excellent:



England - Dead

Barry Groves

"Do you like the idea of bacon and eggs for breakfast? Would you enjoy a lunch of roast salmon and a satisfying dinner accompanied by wine?

The EAT FAT GET THIN diet will allow you to do just that: the emphasis being on what you eat rather than how many calories the food contains. The rules are simple: keep your carbohydrates to a minimum by cutting out bread, potatoes and cereals, leave out the sugar, eat only the good fats and concentrate on protein rich foods.

The beauty of the EAT FAT GET THIN diet is that you will never go hungry. EAT FAT GET THIN proves that the diet on which it is most difficult to lose weight is a low-fat high carbohydrate diet. In fact, a century of studies and medical trials has consistently demonstrated that for safe wight loss a high fat diet is best."



BYU Utah

Ben Bikman

"I'm fascinated with this rise of the carnivore. What I appreciate about it is the simplicity. A part of me envies the true simplicity of the diet. Not anti-vegetable but I appreciate the simplicity. It's nonsense to think that dietary fiber is necessary for bowel movements."



NYC, Dead

Blake F. Donaldson

Dr. Bruce Ferguson Donaldson (1893-1966) was a specialist in internal medicine and author.
Born the son of a postmaster, William W. Donaldson, and Helen I. Donaldson (née Scott), he was a native and lifelong resident of Hauppauge, New York on Long Island.
He married Harriott Cate in 1922 and together they had six children.
He died on February 19, 1966 at his home in Hauppauge aged 73.

“It isn’t normal to live on milk and cream and cheese and ice cream and eggs and chocolate and wheat flour and alcohol. No! Man is a hunter. Most of the wheat flour should be fed to the animals. Let them go through the arduous labor of converting fodder into meat fat. And then eat the animal. That is the smart thing to do.”

“A sterol called cholesterol is supposed to be guilty of making us grow old before our time. But there is no proof of this.”

“People practically always steal food when they are hungry, and low-calorie diets mean weakness and hunger... No! Counting calories is for the birds. There should be no sensation of hunger in proper weight reduction.”
Dr. Blake F. Donaldson, Strong Medicine

Advice to Fat Men Is To 'Go Primitive'

Dr. Blake Donaldson insists that his weight reducing ideas are simultaneously 20 years ahead of the times and 8,000 years old. 

Donaldson, a trim 70 years old, is impressed by evidence that primitive man, for all his troubles, did not suffer from overweight. So Donaldson advises his patients to go primitive. Results, they shed a total of 4,000 pounds of fat per year. 

"The human animal " said Donaldson, while eating a big steak at a New York restaurant, "for millions of years lived just one way. He dwelled in forests and on the banks of streams. "He hunted and ate fat meat. His life was one of constant exercise. He had to be able to jump seven feet into a tree to escape a saber-toothed tiger. 

"We are fairly sure--from examining old German burial grounds and skulls found in the Arctic--that he had excellent vision, good teeth, no  arthritis or skin problems. Chances are he usually avoided the crippling and killing diseases aggravated by overweight." 

"People just refuse to believe that a ginger snap or a soda cracker is starch.

For the past four decades Donaldson has advised his overweight patients personally or through his book "Strong Medicine," to hold to the following regimen:

Do not retire before 10 p.m.; up by 6 a.m. Never sleep more than eight hours per day.

Before breakfast take a half-hour brisk walk. ("This is the most important medical advance in 8,000 years.")

For breakfast, lunch and dinner eat the same thing: one-half pound of fresh fat meat. A demitasse of black coffee three times daily is permissible.

Drink six glasses of water per day, none after 5 p.m.

Abstain from every other food, including seasoning. "It's so simple it's difficult," complained the good doctor.

"People just refuse to believe that a ginger snap or a soda cracker is starch. This is not an extreme diet. But if anybody is content to peel off three pounds of fat a week--and keep it off--my plan does it. 

"I don't object to smoking. People must have a few vices or they aren't worth talking to. They become plants.

"But I do object to flour addiction. This is a worse vice than heroin in terms of the physical damage it can do."

As Donaldson polished off his steak he confessed that being fat is not enough inducement to reduce. "It has to hurt you--either your pride or your body," he said. 

"And it's impossible to slim down some people. They simply do not obey orders. I don't think the devil himself could take fat off an opera singer."



San Diego, California

Bret Scher

Medical director at Diet Doctor. com

Low Carb Cardiologist Promoting health through purposeful lifestyle. Making low carb simple with trustworthy information



San Francisco, California

Cameron Sepah

I invest Magi VC & advise @8VC

I train psychiatrists @UCSFMedicine

I coach executives

I set trends: #TonicMasculinity #DopamineFasting

Narrative: Salads are the most nutritious food

(especially believed by women).  #NarrativeViolation: Steaks (ruminant/organ meat) are the most nutrient-dense food

(always known by men).  Whatever your gender is, quality animal-based protein is priority #1. Fiber comes after.

I don’t think we fully yet understand and appreciate the role of fiber in the microbiome, so I’m not quite in the anti-fiber radical carnivore camp yet.   I consume a lot, but mostly as byproduct of getting minerals & micronutrients.



Orlando, Florida

Catherine Shanahan

LA Lakers' Science Consultant, author, Deep Nutrition: Why Your Genes Need Traditional Food. Flavor=Nutrition. Working at: Eradicating Diabetes #VegOilSucks

The carnivore diet may work magic on healthy folks, but what if you're not so healthy?

I’ve met a number patients who had lost weight from exercise combined with protein-powder based crash diets that were low in both fat and carb, only to discover that they had developed diabetes in spite of having lost weight.

Chris Newguard PhD (speaking in the NIH video linked below) has been studying the origins of insulin resistance for over a decade and consistently finding a correlation between high protein intake and insulin resistance, independent of body weight.

It might be protein powder causing the problem (and whole food based protein may not have this effect). It might be the lack of healthy fat. It might be the combination of intensive exercise with all of the above.

Until we know more, in my opinion, if you’re following a #carnivorediet it is super important to make sure you get enough NATURAL (whole food) fats. Once you get your 60-90 grams of protein, the rest should be mostly fat. Consumption beyond what your body can easily use may be particularly damaging to those with #insulinresistance #prediabetes and #type2diabetes

Why? Compared to healthy folks, those with insulin resistance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes have a higher baseline (fasting) blood sugar requirement and therefore their livers (and possibly kidneys) are forced to convert amino acids from protein into sugar at a faster rate than those who are healthy. This alters nitrogen metabolism in the liver (and kidney) and could help to explain why so many overweight folks suffer from gout. Perhaps most importantly, it also blocks fat burn (the burning of body fat as opposed to dietary fat), and when you block fat burn you worsen your glucose dependence and travel farther down the road to diabetes.

If you're doing well on a carnivore diet, that's fantastic! And if you are adventurous in your carnivore eating style you can still enjoy all 4 pillars of a Human Diet including Fresh Foods, Fermented and Sprouted Foods (well, maybe not sprouted), Meat on the Bone and Organ Meats.




Charlene Andersen

My list of health conditions grew: eczema all over my hands (to the point of second degree burns), tinnitus, worsening depression, worsening fatigue (fell asleep at work all the time, at meetings, at church, and driving a car), lower back/pelvic and sciatic nerve pain (couldn’t sit at all, worked standing up, constant pain with occasional howling-pain spasms; MRI revealed degenerative disc disease in 3 areas), systemic edema, blurry vision (eyeglasses were worn beginning in high school, worsening every year), paralyzation at times in hands and feet working its way into my torso (Joe had to be called to carry me out of work several times), allergies/sensitivities to all things (food, pollens, chemicals), continued amenhorrea, weight gain (at my heaviest 50 pounds overweight), inability to concentrate (couldn’t understand a sentence spoken to me in time to hear the next in a conversation), diagnosed with cervical dysplasia (treated with cryotherapy), migraines, heart pains, indigestion/reflux, bingeing (and at the end, vomiting – luckily only a few times), muscle twitching (over 100 twitches in 1-minute’s time), lumps in my breasts I was too afraid to have checked out, and one of the last but most difficult for everyone around me was my irritation and rage (a complete reversal of my laid back and sweet nature everyone knew me to have growing up).

Soon after I was diagnosed with Lyme disease by an alternative M.D. At least that gave us something to focus on and be able to look at as reasons behind some of my issues. I decided to quit my job to focus on getting well and reducing my stress level (I was working, taking MBA classes, finished my PT and nutritionist licenses).

More research quickly led us from looking at low carb to virtually no carbs. We experimented so much in such little amount of time that we realized we’d better start journals of everything we ate, how we felt, what worked and what didn’t. All we wanted was consistency.

The fish and oil diet was the first diet I can remember being the first try at a zero carb diet. It relieved a lot of my symptoms, but not all (still had amenhorrea, edema, trichotillomania, acne, eczema and excess weight). We probably spent about a year experimenting beginning with the fish and oil diet, quickly switching to free range eggs and poultry, and occasional lamb and beef.

We continued researching and looked at our wins and fails. It led us to Blake Donaldson who suggested a steak and water diet for his patients. That made a lot of sense to Joe and I. We started with pemmican only for some time, introducing steak eventually. Sure enough, as soon as I decided to go all beef, EVERY SINGLE ONE of my symptoms vanished!!! I couldn’t believe it. Whenever I tried to share my success and happiness about this, it was met with more questionable stares, anger, fear, and rolled eyes than you would ever imagine. So, it was our little secret. And that’s how we kept it until we found others with our point of view.




Charles Washington

Following is a post from Charles Washington on 3/23/15:

The key to all these things is having the right mindset. Many of you come looking for "rules" and you want to explore legalities with us. This is how you approach it: The bedrock is meat and water. Every meal should be about meat and water. Seasonings, condiments, dairy, coffee and even alcohol are all viewed in the context of meat.

If you eat cheese, I'm assuming you're eating it on a burger. If you eat cheese by itself? Not so much.

If you drink alcohol, I assume you just had a steak. If you drink coffee in the morning, I assume you're having bacon and eggs first.

The foundation of every meal is meat and water. It's like Christianity's Lord's prayer. It is an outline but if you stick to just those words, you will do just fine, I'm told. Any good prayer will have the elements within it, even if it's longer.

Same here. Any good ZC (Zero Carb) meal will have meat and water. If you are eating a meal that does not contain meat and water, you are wrong.

If coffee is your breakfast, you are wrong. If cheese is your lunch, you are wrong. If alcohol is your sole dinner, you are wrong. Does that make sense?

It's better to keep it simple and have meat and water. If you want to get fancy and add something else, add it within this framework. If you're new? Stick to basics. In fact, if you're old at ZC, stick to basics. It's just easier that way.



Budapest, Hungary

Csaba Tóth

Therapeutic protocol of Paleomedicina Hungary

We have developed the PKD in 2010-2011. Previously we have been using the paleolithic diet which proved to be ineffective in the vast majority of chronic conditions. We believe that the PKD is the only evolutionary adapted diet for humans. Rehabilitation of chronic diseases is most effective when the diet is limited to our real physiological needs. Eating fruits and vegetables does not form part of our physiological need but are associated with risks. Plant foods can only be regarded as ”relatively” safe and only when certain plant food items are consumed and only in limited amounts. The diet was derived from clinical evidence and was not primarily influenced by archeological or ethnographic evidence, given that the application of the diet is clinical too. Altogether clinical experience was derived from about 4000 patients.



Dana Shute

Information, experience and support for a Zero Carb Carnivore Diet from people who have been eating this way for over 10 years.  We only eat from the Animal Kingdom and we are proud carnivores!  Zero carb eating is different from anything you have ever tried before, including paleo, low carb, or keto diets.   We encourage people to try this Zero Carb way of eating for 30 days. That is a reasonable time frame to begin seeing the benefits of this lifestyle.   Trust the process!

53yr old 12+ year Zero Carb Carnivore. Founder of ZeroCarbHealth FB Group and ZeroCarbCarnivore Etsy Store.


Private Researcher

Ann Arbor, Michigan

Darren Schmidt

Bankrupting Drug Co’s #LCHF #keto #supplements. FTP=Follow The Physiology. Mechansim of chronic dz=lactic acidosis. Taught 3700 dr’s at seminars. +100k YT subs

I've had 3 patients get rid of their Raynaud's syndrome with carnivore/fasting... a "genetic" or "autoimmune" problem fixed with diet changes. No drug or supplement can do this for Raynaud's.