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Tanushimarumachi Tanushimaru, Kurume, Fukuoka 839-1233, Japan

First Contact:

gather% / fish % / hunt %
fat % / protein % / carb%

A rough estimate to help us understand how carnivorous and how ketogenic these people were before being exposed to western civilization

Click this Slide deck Gallery to see high quality images of the tribe, daily life, diet, hunting and gathering or recipes

About the Tribe


Importance of Animal Products

Importance of Plants

The pre-transition diet was very high in unrefined carbohydrates and very low in fat and sugar.

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Transition to Industrialized Food Products


The pre-transition diet was very high in unrefined carbohydrates and very low in fat and sugar. This village had one of the lowest CHD death rates of the 16 Seven Countries Study cohorts initially and the lowest after 25 years (66). Post-transition, calories decreased 2%, fat increased 119%, protein increased 31%, and carbohydrates decreased 19%. There was no data on types of fat, starch, fiber, or added sugars. Sugar consumption was very low pre-transition and 45 years post-transition (66, 83).

Activity and Lifestyle

Pre-transition, men worked hard (54%) or moderately hard (42%) in agricultural jobs. Post-transition, physical labor decreased (73). Pre-transition, 53% of men reported daily alcohol intake and 56.7% of the men smoked; post-transition, 71% of men consumed alcohol and 16.7% of men smoked (84). There was insufficient data on physical activity, smoking or alcohol consumption for women.

Health Outcomes

From 1958 to 2018, men's BMIs increased from 21.7 to 24.4 (73) and serum cholesterol increased from 168 mg/dL to 209 mg/dL. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged at ~133 mmHg post-transition, while diastolic blood pressure increased from 74 pre- to 85 mmHg post-transition (73). Mortality rates from cancer and stroke declined post-transition and mortality rates of myocardial infarction were stable despite a ~27% rise in serum cholesterol. The percent of men on hypertensive medications increased from 3 to 40% from 1958 to 2018 (73).

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