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Fermented soyabean and vitamin C-rich fruit: a possibility to circumvent the further decrease of iron status among iron-deficient pregnant women in Indonesia

Wijaya-Erhardt, Maria; Muslimatun, Siti; Erhardt, Juergen G.

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PMID: 21729487


OBJECTIVE: Increasing the consumption of Fe-rich foods and thus improving Fe bioavailability without significantly increasing diet cost is the most sustainable intervention for improving Fe intake. We assessed the effect of supplementary food consisting of fermented soyabean (tempeh) and vitamin C-rich fruit consumed during pregnancy on maternal iron deficiency (ID). DESIGN: Pregnant women were randomly allocated by village into optimized diet and control groups. Supplementary food was given 6 d/week at home. The average weekly food provided comprised 600 g of tempeh, 30 g of meat, 350 g of guava, 300 g of papaya and 100 g of orange. Hb, ferritin and transferrin receptor (TfR) concentrations were measured at 12-20 and at 32-36 weeks of gestation. SETTING: Thirty-nine villages in Indonesia. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women (12-20 weeks of gestation, n 252). RESULTS: At baseline, mean Hb, ferritin and TfR concentrations and body Fe concentration were within the normal range and did not differ between groups. At near term, mean Hb, ferritin and body Fe decreased, whereas mean TfR increased significantly in both groups. The mean changes in Fe status were similar in both groups. In Fe-deficient women, consumption of an optimized diet was associated with smaller decreases in Hb (1·02 (95% CI 0·98, 1·07) g/l; P = 0·058), ferritin (1·42 (95% CI 1·16, 1·75) μg/l; P = 0·046) and body Fe (2·57 (95% CI 1·71, 3·43) mg/kg; P = 0·073) concentrations, compared with a state of no intervention. Fe-deficient women at baseline benefited more from supplementary food compared with Fe-replete women. CONCLUSIONS: Daily supplementary food containing tempeh and vitamin C-rich fruits during pregnancy might have positive effects on maternal ID.

Automatic Tags

Female; Humans; Adolescent; Adult; Young Adult; Middle Aged; Diet; Dietary Supplements; Nutritional Status; Pregnancy; Indonesia; Ascorbic Acid; Ferritins; Fermentation; Fruit; Soy Foods; Iron, Dietary; Receptors, Transferrin; Antigens, CD

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