Edmands, William M. B.; Beckonert, Olaf P.; Stella, Cinzia; Campbell, Alison; Lake, Brian G.; Lindon, John C.; Holmes, Elaine; Gooderham, Nigel J.
Consumption of cruciferous vegetables (CVs) is inversely correlated to many human diseases including cancer (breast, lung, and bladder), diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurological disease. Presently, there are no readily measurable biomarkers of CV consumption and intake of CVs has relied on dietary recall. Here, biomarkers of CV intake were identified in the urine of 20 healthy Caucasian adult males using (1)H NMR spectroscopy with multivariate statistical modeling. The study was separated into three phases of 14 days: a run-in period with restricted CV consumption (phase I); a high CV phase where participants consumed 250 g/day of both broccoli and Brussels sprouts (phase II); a wash-out phase with a return to restricted CV consumption (phase III). Each study participant provided a complete cumulative urine collection over 48 h at the end of each phase; a spot urine (U0), 0-10 h (U0-10), 10-24 h (U10-24), and 24-48 h (U24-48) urine samples. Urine samples obtained after consumption of CVs were differentiated from low CV diet samples by four singlet (1)H NMR spectroscopic peaks, one of which was identified as S-methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO) and the three other peaks were tentatively identified as other metabolites structurally related to SMCSO. These stable urinary biomarkers of CV consumption will facilitate future assessment of CVs in nutritional population screening and dietary intervention studies and may correlate to population health outcomes.