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Gene-gene, gene-environment & multiple interactions in colorectal cancer
This review comprehensively evaluates the influence of gene-gene, gene-environment and multiple interactions on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods of studying these interactions and their limitations have been discussed herein. There is a need to develop biomarkers of exposure and of risk that are sensitive, specific, present in the pathway of the disease, and that have been clinically tested for routine use. The influence of inherited variation (polymorphism) in several genes has been discussed in this review; however, due to study limitations and confounders, it is difficult to conclude which ones are associated with the highest risk (either individually or in combination with environmental factors) to CRC. The majority of the sporadic cancer is believed to be due to modification of mutation risk by other genetic and/or environmental factors. Micronutrient deficiency may explain the association between low consumption of fruit/vegetables and CRC in human studies. Mitochondrial modulation by dietary factors influences the balance between cell renewal and death critical in colon mucosal homeostasis. Both genetic and epigenetic interactions are intricately dependent on each other, and collectively influence the process of colorectal tumorigenesis. The genetic and environmental interactions present a good prospect and a challenge for prevention strategies for CRC because they support the view that this highly prevalent cancer is preventable. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Exercise; Smoking; Apoptosis; Mitochondria; Meat; SNP; Alcohol; Fruit; Vegetables; Nutrigenomics; Transcription Factors; Epigenetic; HRT; Imprinting; MSI; Mutations; Polymorphism
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