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The human milk metabolome reveals diverse oligosaccharide profiles

Smilowitz, Jennifer T; O'Sullivan, Aifric; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce; Lönnerdal, Bo; Slupsky, Carolyn M

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Breast milk delivers nutrition and protection to the developing infant. There has been considerable research on the high-molecular-weight milk components; however, low-molecular-weight metabolites have received less attention. To determine the effect of maternal phenotype and diet on the human milk metabolome, milk collected at day 90 postpartum from 52 healthy women was analyzed by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty-five milk metabolites were quantified (mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides; amino acids and derivatives; energy metabolites; fatty acids and associated metabolites; vitamins, nucleotides, and derivatives; and others). The biological variation, represented as the percentage CV of each metabolite, varied widely (4-120%), with several metabolites having low variation (

Automatic Tags

Female; Metabolism; Infant; Lactation; Body Mass Index; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Prospective Studies; Life Style; Human; Motor Activity; Milk, Human; California; Food Habits; Questionnaires; Factor Analysis; Transferases; Transferases -- Metabolism; Logistic Regression; Oligosaccharides; Chemistry, Physical; Maternal Nutritional Physiology; Oligosaccharides -- Analysis; Postnatal Period -- Physiology

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