Raatz, Susan K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Wolters, William W.; Burr, Gary S.; Picklo, Matthew J.
Enhanced n-3 fatty acid intake benefits cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Increasing consumption at a population level may be better addressed by diet than through supplementation. However, limited data are available on the effect of the dose response to fish intake on plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids. To compare the effects of different doses of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid proportions and CVD risk biomarkers (eg, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6) in healthy subjects we performed a randomized three-period crossover-designed trial (4-week treatment, 4- to 8-week washout) to compare the effects of twice per week consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon at doses of 90, 180, and 270 g in 19 apparently healthy men and women (mean age 40 to 65 years) and a body mass index between 25 and 34.9. All study visits were conducted at the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. Eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 concentrations were increased (P<0.05) by all treatments in a dose-response manner, with total n-3 of 8.03% ± 0.26% and 9.21% ± 0.26% for 180- and 270-g doses, respectively. Linoleic acid did not change in response to treatment, whereas arachidonic acid (P<0.05) and total n-6 fatty acids decreased dose dependently (