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Trans fatty acids: Are its cardiovascular risks fully appreciated?
Objective The goal of this article was to review the causal link between trans fatty acids (TFA) produced from partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and its likely mechanisms. The potential risk of TFA from ruminant dairy and meats, which are currently the major sources of dietary TFA, is also discussed. Methods Evidence was derived from observational studies of large cohorts followed up prospectively; from randomized controlled trials of clinical interventions; and from specific case-control studies that investigated biomarkers in tissues. Searches included PubMed and Medline from 1990 to 2013. Results Despite TFA from PHVO being associated more strongly with CVD risk than even saturated fats, it may prove difficult to totally eliminate PHVO from all foods. This raises the issue of the lower limit of TFA consumption below which CVD risk is not increased. Limits of
cardiovascular risk; ruminant fat; TFA isomers; trans fatty acids
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