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Metabolic profiling by 1H NMR of ground beef irradiated at different irradiation doses
Zanardi, E.; Caligiani, A.; Palla, L.; Mariani, M.; Ghidini, S.; Di Ciccio, P.A.; Palla, G.; Ianieri, A.
This work describes a metabolic profiling study of non-irradiated and irradiated beef (at 2.5, 4.5 and 8kGy) using 1H NMR and chemometrics. The assignment of all major NMR signals of the aqueous/methanolic extracts was performed. A comprehensive multivariate data analysis proved the ability to distinguish between the irradiated and non-irradiated beef. Classification trees revealed that three metabolites (glycerol, lactic acid esters and tyramine or a p-substituted phenolic compound) are important biomarkers for classification of the irradiated and non-irradiated beef samples. Overall, the achieved metabolomic results show that the changes in the metabolic profile of meat provide a valuable insight to be used in detecting irradiated beef. The use of the NMR-based approach simplifies sample preparation and decrease the time required for analysis, compared to available official analytical procedures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Beef; Metabolomics; NMR; Classification trees; Irradiation; Principal component analysis
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