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Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a marine functional source of gamma-tocopherol

Menoyo, D.; Sanz-Bayón, C.; Nessa, A.H.; Esatbeyoglu, T.; Faizan, M.; Pallauf, K.; De Diego, N.; Wagner, A.E.; Ipharraguerre, I.; Stubhaug, I.; Rimbach, G.

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Gamma tocopherol (gT) exhibits beneficial cardiovascular effects partly due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Important sources of gT are vegetable oils. However, little is known to what extent gT can be transferred into marine animal species such as Atlantic salmon by feeding. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the transfer of dietary gT into salmon. To this end, fish were fed a diet supplemented with 170 ppm gT for 16 weeks whereby alpha tocopherol levels were adjusted to 190 ppm in this and the control diet. Feeding gT-rich diets resulted in a three-fold increase in gT concentrations in the liver and fillet compared to non-gT-supplemented controls. Tissue alpha tocopherol levels were not decreased indicating no antagonistic interaction between gamma- and alpha tocopherol in salmon. The concentration of total omega 3 fatty acids slightly increased in response to dietary gT. Furthermore, dietary gT significantly decreased malondialdehyde in the fillet, determined as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. In the liver of gT fed salmon we observed an overall down-regulation of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Additionally, gT improved the antioxidant capacity by up-regulating Gpx4a gene expression in the pyloric caeca. We suggest that Atlantic salmon may provide a marine functional source capable of enriching gT for human consumption. © 2014 by the authors licensee MDPI Basel Switzerland.

Automatic Tags

Oily fish; Vitamin E; Gamma tocopherol; Omega 3 fatty acids; Salmon ( salmo salar)

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