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Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: A randomized crossover trial1,2
Thorning, T.K.; Raziani, F.; Bendsen, N.T.; Astrup, A.; Tholstrup, T.; Raben, A.
Background: Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. Objective: We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. Design: The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three fulldiet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a highcheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, highmeat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB). Results: The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P , 0.001), and a 5% lower apoB:apo A-I ratio (P = 0.008) than did the CARB diet. Also, the MEAT diet caused an 8% higher HDL-cholesterol concentration (P , 0.001) and a 4% higher apo A-I concentration (P = 0.033) than did the CARB diet. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triacylglycerol were similar with the 3 diets. Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P , 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively) and 0.9 g higher with the MEAT diet than with the CARB diet (P = 0.005). CHEESE and MEAT diets caused higher fecal bile acid excretion than did the CARB diet (P , 0.05 and P = 0.006, respectively). The dominant type of bile acids excreted differed between CHEESE and MEAT diets. Conclusions: Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Saturated fat; Bile acids; Blood lipids; Cheese
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