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Arsenic Species in Chicken Breast: Temporal Variations of Metabolites, Elimination Kinetics, and Residual Concentrations

Qingqing Liu; Hanyong Peng; Xiufen Lu; Zuidhof, Martin J.; Xing-Fang Li; Le, X. Chris

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BACKGROUND: Chicken meat has the highest per capita consumption among all meat types in North America. The practice of feeding 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, Rox) to chickens lasted for more than 60 years. However, the fate of Rox and arsenic metabolites remaining in chicken are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the elimination of Rox and metabolites from chickens and quantify the remaining arsenic species in chicken meat, providing necessary information for meaningful exposure assessment. METHODS: We have conducted a 35-day feeding experiment involving 1,600 chickens, of which half were control and the other half were fed a Rox-supplemented diet for the first 28 days and then a Rox-free diet for the final 7 days. We quantified the concentrations of individual arsenic species in the breast meat of 229 chickens. RESULTS: Rox, arsenobetaine, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and a new arsenic metabolite, were detected in breast meat from chickens fed Rox. The concentrations of arsenic species, except arsenobetaine, were significantly higher in the Rox-fed than in the control chickens. The half-lives of elimination of these arsenic species were 0.4--1 day. Seven days after termination of Rox feeding, the concentrations of arsenite (3.1 µg/kg), Rox (0.4 µg/kg), and a new arsenic metabolite (0.8 µg/kg) were significantly higher in the Rox-fed chickens than in the control. CONCLUSION: Feeding of Rox to chickens increased the concentrations of five arsenic species in breast meat. Although most arsenic species were excreted rapidly when the feeding of Rox stopped, arsenic species remaining in the Rox-fed chickens were higher than the background levels.

Automatic Tags

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Food Contamination; Poultry; Mass Spectrometry; Animal Studies; Data Analysis Software; Descriptive Statistics; Funding Source; Analytic Sample Preparation Methods; Arsenicals -- Metabolism; Arsenicals -- Pharmacokinetics; Drug Residues; Mann-Whitney U Test; P-Value; Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient; Tissue -- Analysis; Two-Way Analysis of Variance

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