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Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet Supplemented with Resistant Starch Display Marked Shifts in the Liver Metabolome Concurrent with Altered Gut Bacteria

Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Marco, Maria L.; Eun Bae Kim; Goodson, Michael L.; Keenan, Michael J.; Dunn, Tamara N.; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Martin, Roy J.; Adams, Sean H.; Kim, Eun Bae; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

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Background: High-amylose-maize resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) is a fermentable dietary fiber known to alter the gut milieu, including the gut microbiota, which may explain the reported effects of resistant starch to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction.Objective: Our working hypothesis was that HAMRS2-induced microbiome changes alter gut-derived signals (i.e., xenometabolites) reaching the liver via the portal circulation, in turn altering liver metabolism by regulating gene expression and other pathways.Methods: We used a multi-omics systems biology approach to characterize HAMRS2-driven shifts to the cecal microbiome, liver metabolome, and transcriptome, identifying correlates between microbial changes and liver metabolites under obesogenic conditions that, to our knowledge, have not previously been recognized. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed an energy-dense 45% lard-based-fat diet for 10 wk supplemented with either 20% HAMRS2 by weight (n = 14) or rapidly digestible starch (control diet; n = 15).Results: Despite no differences in food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance, fasting plasma insulin, or liver triglycerides, the HAMRS2 mice showed a 15-58% reduction in all measured liver amino acids, except for Gln, compared with control mice. These metabolites were equivalent in the plasma of HAMRS2 mice compared with controls, and transcripts encoding key amino acid transporters were not different in the small intestine or liver, suggesting that HAMRS2 effects were not simply due to lower hepatocyte exposure to systemic amino acids. Instead, alterations in gut microbial metabolism could have affected host nitrogen and amino acid homeostasis: HAMRS2 mice showed a 62% increase (P < 0.0001) in 48-h fecal output and a 41% increase (P

Automatic Tags

Male; Obesity; Mice; Random Assignment; Adipose Tissue Distribution; Liver -- Drug Effects; Liver -- Metabolism; Glucans; Gastrointestinal System -- Microbiology; Bacteria -- Classification; Dietary Fats -- Administration and Dosage; Glucans -- Administration and Dosage

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