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Early Postnatal Diets Affect the Bioregional Small Intestine Microbiome and Ileal Metabolome in Neonatal Pigs

Piccolo, Brian D.; Mercer, Kelly E.; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bowlin, Anne K.; Saraf, Manish K.; Pack, Lindsay; Chintapalli, Sree V.; Shankar, Kartik; Adams, Sean H.; Badger, Thomas M.; Yeruva, Laxmi

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Background: Breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet affects the small intestine microbiome.Objective: We hypothesized that disparate early diets would promote unique microbial profiles in the small intestines of neonatal pigs.Methods: Male and female 2-d-old White Dutch Landrace pigs were either sow fed or provided dairy (Similac Advance powder; Ross Products Abbott Laboratories) or soy (Enfamil Prosobee Lipil powder; Mead Johnson Nutritionals) infant formulas until day 21. Bacterial ecology was assessed in the contents of the small intestine through the use of 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. α-Diversity, β-diversity, and differential abundances of operational taxonomic units were assessed by ANOVA, permutational ANOVA, and negative binomial regression, respectively. Ileum tissue metabolomics were measured by LC-mass spectrometry and assessed by weighted correlation network analysis.Results: Greater α-diversity was observed in the duodena of sow-fed compared with formula-fed neonatal pigs (P 60% relative abundance in all of the groups. In the duodenum, 77 genera were altered by diet, followed by 48 in the jejunum and 19 in the ileum. Metabolomics analyses revealed associations between ileum tissue metabolites (e.g., acylcarnitines, 3-aminoisobutyric acid) and diet-responsive microbial genera.Conclusions: These results indicate that the neonatal diet has regional effects on the small intestine microbiome in pigs, with the most pronounced effects occurring in the duodena. Regional effects may be important factors when considering gut tissue metabolism and development in the postnatal period.

Automatic Tags

Female; Male; Diet; Bacteria; Food, Formulated; Carnitine; Swine; Animal Studies; Metabolism -- Drug Effects; Carnitine -- Metabolism; Eating Behavior; Animal Population Groups; Aminobutyric Acids -- Metabolism; Bacteria -- Drug Effects; Duodenum -- Drug Effects; Duodenum -- Microbiology; Ileum -- Drug Effects; Ileum -- Metabolism; Intestine, Small -- Drug Effects; Intestine, Small -- Metabolism; Intestine, Small -- Microbiology; Milk Proteins -- Pharmacodynamics; Soy Proteins -- Pharmacodynamics

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