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Adherence to Diabetes Dietary Guidelines Assessed Using a Validated Questionnaire Predicts Glucose Control in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

Raj, G.D.; Hashemi, Z.; Soria Contreras, D.C.; Babwik, S.; Maxwell, D.; Bell, R.C.; Chan, C.B.

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine predominant deviations from Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) nutrition therapy guidelines for Canadians with type 2 diabetes as a prelude to developing relevant interventions. We hypothesized that lack of adherence to these guidelines would be associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels. Methods: A cross-sectional trial was conducted to evaluate associations between dietary adherence to CDA and Health Canada guidelines and blood glucose control. Diet was assessed using 3-day diet records and a diabetes-specific validated questionnaire, the Perceived Dietary Adherence Questionnaire (PDAQ). A total of 80 adult participants with type 2 diabetes volunteered. The main outcome measures were A1C levels, adherence to dietary guidelines and food sources of nutrients. Simple and multiple linear regressions that tested the effects of adherence to dietary guidelines concerning A1C levels were conducted; p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Participants: average age, 61.2±10.4 (standard deviation) years; 48 females and 32 males had A1C levels of 7.3%±1.3% (56±6.3 mmol/mol). Participants' reported mean daily intakes of sodium and saturated fat exceeded CDA nutrition therapy guidelines. Cured meats, fast foods and snack foods were all major contributors to intake of sodium and saturated fat. Saturated fat (r=0.341) and sodium intakes (r=0.296) and total PDAQ scores (r=–0.417) were correlated with A1C levels (p

Automatic Tags

type 2 diabetes; sodium; dietary guidelines; A1C levels

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