June 24, 1916
The exclusive meat diet was not accompanied by any unpleasant symptoms whatsoever. No sensation of hunger was experienced between meals as in the previous experiment, and perfect health as well as unhampered mental activity were enjoyed throughout.
Studies on Cholesterol
The slight initial increase observed in the blood cholesterol may have been due to the rather severe nature of the diet to which the body had to become accustomed. On the first day the writer was chronically hungry and had a severe headache in consequence, but during the two following days she felt perfectly well and comfortable. It is a well-known fact that fasting is always accompanied by an increase of the blood cholesterol (Rothschild).** ‘The changes found in the cytology of the blood were still very slight, but the drop of the blood cholesterol to 0.186 mg. and the accompanying increase of lymphocytes and decrease of neutrophils is interesting when compared with the results of the subsequent experiments. The results obtained by the all-meat diet seem worthy of consideration for several reasons. The changes observed in the cytology and in the cholesterol content of the blood are too marked and too gradual to be explained by mere coincidence. The increase in the blood cholesterol from 0.186 mg. to 0.372 mg. can not be attributed to the effects of hunger because very considerable quantities of meat were consumed at each meal.
It is to be regretted that at first the exact amount was not determined by weight, but it may suffice to state that the writer conscientiously tried to eat as much meat as she possibly could for breakfast, luncheon and dinner, a smaller quantity being ingested at 4:00 p.m. It was subsequently found that the average amount of meat consumed daily had been from 1.25 to 1.5 pounds. Coffee and tea were taken as usual, but no alcohol, since it is never used. The exclusive meat diet was not accompanied by any unpleasant symptoms whatsoever, although it was found necessary to allow a very small quantity of dry bread after the third day, since meat in hot weather—the experiment was made between June 23 and July 1—loses its attractions as a steady diet. No sensation of hunger was experienced between meals as in the previous experiment, and perfect health as well as unhampered mental activity were enjoyed throughout.*.
On the seventh day, at the beginning of which the highest cholesterol value was registered, there was a slight attack of diarrhea. On the following day peristalsis was normal again, but the blood cholesterol had dropped to 0.342 per cent of cholesterol by the feces is one of the means by which the cholesterol balance is preserved (McNee), it seems logical increased peristalsis in order to maintain its equilibrium of health. regulation of the cholesterol balance was observed also more fully Since the elimination » assume that the body resorted to The fact that the same automatic regulation of the cholesterol balance was observed also in a later experiment would seem to support this view, and will be discussed in connection with Experiment 7. The gradual but steady drop in the lymphoid defense from 33 to 17 percent, the parallel increase of the polymorphoneutrophils from 46 to 72 per cent, and the unusual number of atypical neutrophils—9 percent ringforms, 12 per cent bizarre--which appeared in the blood as the cholesterol percentage reached its highest values, suggest a very definite relation between the chemical composition and the cytology of the blood, while the changes observed in both appear to be closely associated with the chemical nature closely associated the food consumed. The same observations could be made in every one of my experiments.
The cytologic changes found in the blood during the exclusive meat diet are moreover in perfect accordance with Gruner’s findings, which they corroborate. The two points on which he lays particular stress regarding the similarity between excessive meat consumption and in carcinoma the blood picture during atypical neutrophils inbetween reduction of the lymphocytes and the appearance of markedly increased numbers—seem to be borne out also by the following observations _______
The results obtained by the vegetable and fruit diet present a contrast as well as a complement to those of the exclusive meat diet. Whereas the blood cholesterol slowly but steadily decreased from 0.342 mg. to 0.202 mg. on the fifth day and finally seemed to settle down to a new standard, 0.242 mg., which was found on three consecutive days, the lymphoid defense increased from 17 per cent to 33 per cent, with a parallel drop in the neutrophils and a marked reduction of the number of atypical cells. In order to give the body sufficient time to swing back to normal values, and because of the tendency to collapse shown by the cubital veins, described above, eleven days were allowed to elapse before another blood test was made. During this interval the usual mixed diet was used again. The following values were found at its close: _______
Apart from the very slight increase in the neutrophil count, the normal stand ard had been reached again. ‘The difference between the original cholesterol standard, 0.272 mg., and the last reading, 0.266 mg., i. e., 0.006 mg., can hardly be considered significant. The intimate relation between the chemistry and the cytology of the blood and the diet, previously observed, seems to be confirmed by this experiment.