top of page

Historical Event

Copy URL to Share


May 27, 2007

Short Description:




Screenshot 2023-09-23 at 1.31.54 AM.png

The progression of atherosclerosis with further lipid accumulation in the deep layers of the tunica intima is shown by Nakashima, as well as the Grade-3 version.





Early human atherosclerosis: accumulation of lipid and proteoglycans in intimal thickenings followed by macrophage infiltration


Important Text:

Figure 5 shows the progression of atherosclerosis with further lipid accumulation in the deep layers of the tunica intima. It also depicts the addition of macrophages in the latter stages — Grade 3 — of the progression of atherosclerosis.

Figure 5: This figure shows the further progression of atherosclerosis from Grade 2 fatty streak to Grade 3 PIT with foam cells. It shows lipid accumulation increases in the deep layers of the tunica intima (central column of panels) with the addition of macrophages (column of panels on the right). The column of panels on the left shows the histological changes corresponding with this lipid accumulation in the deep layers of the tunica intima. Reproduced from Figure 6 in reference 10.

Figures 4 and 5 clearly establish that cholesterol circulating within arteries cannot explain why the atherosclerotic plaque begins to develop deep within the highly cellular tunica intima, far removed from where LDL-cholesterol is circulating in the bloodstream.

The sole conclusion must be that Keys’ lipid hypothesis cannot explain these findings. Hence, these findings disprove the essential foundations on which Keys’ theories are based.

Topics: (click image to open)

Heart Disease
Heart disease, also known as cardiovascular disease, refers to a range of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. It is a broad term that encompasses various conditions, including coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and valvular heart diseases, among others. Heart disease is a leading cause of death worldwide.
Diet-Heart Hypothesis
The diet-heart hypothesis, also known as the lipid hypothesis, proposes that there is a direct relationship between dietary fat intake, particularly saturated fat and cholesterol, and the development of heart disease. It suggests that consuming high amounts of these fats leads to an increase in blood cholesterol levels, specifically low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which in turn contributes to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries. Some consider this hypothesis nothing more than wishful thinking.
Cholesterol is an animal based molecule that forms cell membranes. It's a lipid known as a sterol. Cholesterol is found in all animal foods and is healthy to eat, despite the opinions set forth by the diet-heart hypothesis. Lipoproteins carry cholesterol as well as other lipids.
bottom of page